Transverse & longitudinal waves
The disturbance that travelling through a medium or vacuum from one place to other by transferring the energy is called a wave. When the wave is travelling through a medium it will experience some local oscillations , but the particles in the medium do not travel with the wave.
Properties of waves
The various properties of waves are
The number of wave cycles that passes through a given point in one second is called frequency.
The distance between two identical points in a wave is called wavelength.
The height of
the wave measured in meters is called amplitude.
The time taken
by one complete wave to pass a given point in one second
is called period.
The distance travel by a periodic motion per unit time is called speed of wave.
Types of waves based on particle direction
There are three types of waves based on the direction of movement of particles of the medium they are longitudinal waves, transverse and surface waves.
A wave in which the particles in the medium moves in same and opposite direction to the direction of the wave propagation is called longitudinal wave. Propagation is nothing but the direction in which energy travels in a wave. Longitudinal waves are also called compression waves. Longitudinal waves has compression and rare fraction regions, compression is a region in which particles are very close together and rare fraction is a region in which particles are spread out.
A wave in which the particles in the medium moves in the direction perpendicular to the direction of the wave propagation is called transverse waves.
Surface wave is wave in which the particle movement direction is in circular motion. The example of surface waves is water waves which involves both longitudinal and transverse wave movements.
Types of waves based on ability to transmit
There are two types of waves based on ability to transmit energy through vacuum they are electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves.
An electromagnetic wave is a wave that is capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum (ie, empty space). Electromagnetic waves generated by the vibrations of charged particles. Light waves are examples of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic waves composed of electric and magnetic fields which are mutually perpendicular to each other and both electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. An electromagnetic wave transports its energy through a vacuum at a speed of 3*10^8 meters per second
A mechanical wave is a wave that is not capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum. Mechanical waves require a medium to transport their energy from one place to another.
A sound wave is
an example of a mechanical wave. Sound waves are unable
to travel through a vacuum. water waves, stadium waves
are other examples of mechanical waves, each requires
some medium to travel.