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Electronics devices and circuits >> Passive components >> Basic electronic components

Basic electronic components

Electronic components are the basic building blocks of an electronic circuit or electronic system or electronic device. They control the flow of electrons in an electronic system or electronic circuit.

Electronic components are very small. Hence, it is easy to carry them from one place to another place. The cost of electronic components is also low. Electronic components consist of two or more terminals.

When a group of electronic components is connected together in an electronic board such as printed circuit board (PCB), a useful electronic circuit is formed. Each electronic component in a circuit performs a particular task.

Types of electronic components

The electronic components are generally classified into two types:

Passive components

Active components

Passive component

The electronic component, which consumes energy in the form of voltage from the source, but does not produce or supply energy is called passive electronic component.

  1. Passive components cannot control the flow of electrons or electric current through a circuit, but they limit the flow of electrons or electric current. 
  2. Passive components cannot amplify or increase the power of an electrical signal.
  3. Passive components temporarily store the electrical energy in the form of static electric field or magnetic field.
  4.  Passive components do not depend on the external source of energy or voltage to perform a specific operation.

Different types of passive components

The different types of passive components include resistors, capacitors, and inductors.

Resistors

Resistors are the commonly used components in the electronic circuits. A resistor is an electronic component that limits the electric current or flow of electrons to certain level. It consists of two terminals.

How much electric current does a resistor reduce or limits is depends on the resistance value of a resistor. The resistors with more resistance value will reduce large amount of electric current whereas the resistors with less resistance value will reduce less amount of electric current.

The electric current reduced or restricted by the resistor is measured in ohms and it is represented by a symbol Ω. The size of resistors is very small. 

The circuit symbol of resistor, capacitor, and inductor
Capacitors

Capacitors are the most widely used electronic components after the resistors. Capacitors temporarily store the electrical energy in the form of static electric field.

Capacitors consist of two parallel electrical conductors separated by a non-conductive or insulating material called dielectric. Dielectric materials do not allow the electricity to flow through them.

Inductors

An inductor is a passive two terminal electronic component that temporarily stores the electrical energy in the form of a magnetic field. It consists of coil of copper wires or electrical conductive wires. When the electric current is passed through the coil, a magnetic field is produced and stored in the coil of copper wires.

Active component

The electronic component, which consumes energy in the form of voltage or current and produces or supplies energy in the form of electric current or voltage is called active component.

  1. An active component not only controls the flow of electrons or electric current, but also amplifies or increases the power of electronic signal.
  2.  Active components depend on the external source of energy or voltage to perform a specific operation.
  3. When the active components consume enough voltage, they start operating.

Different types of active components

The different types of active components include diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (IC).

Diode

A diode is a semiconductor component that allows most of the electric current or flows of electrons in one direction (forward direction) while blocks most of the electric current in opposite direction (reverse direction). It consists of two terminals or electrodes: cathode and anode. The p-type material of a diode acts as anode and the n-type material acts as cathode.

A diode is a semiconductor component that allows most of the electric current or flows of electrons in one direction

When the voltage is applied to the diode in such a way that positive terminal is connected to the anode and negative terminal is connected to the cathode, the diode allows the electric current.

When the voltage is applied to the diode in such a way that positive terminal is connected to the cathode and the negative terminal is connected to the anode, the diode blocks the electric current.

Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor component that amplifies or increases the electronic signals. Three scientists named Walter Brattain, William Shockley, and J. Bardeen invented the transistor in 1947 at the Bell Laboratories. Transistors are made from semiconductor materials such as silicon and germanium.

A transistor is a semiconductor component that amplifies or increases the electronic signals.
Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit is a small semiconductor chip on which millions of electronic components such as capacitors, resistors, and transistors are fabricated. The cost of Integrated circuit is low compared to the discrete components because in integrated circuit all the components are fabricated on a single chip. 

An integrated is a small semiconductor chip on which millions of electronic components such as capacitors, resistors, and transistors are fabricated

It can function as a microprocessor, amplifier, and counter. The invention of ICs had changed the world of electronics.亚博网址多少 


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