Basic electronic components
components are the basic building blocks of an electronic
circuit or electronic system or electronic device. They
control the flow of electrons in an electronic system or
components are very small. Hence, it is easy to carry them
from one place to another place. The cost of electronic
components is also low. Electronic components consist of two
or more terminals.
group of electronic components is connected together in an
electronic board such as printed circuit board (PCB), a useful
electronic circuit is formed. Each electronic component in a
circuit performs a particular task.
of electronic components
electronic components are generally classified into two types:
electronic component, which consumes energy
in the form of voltage
from the source, but does not produce or supply energy
is called passive electronic component.
components cannot control the flow of electrons or electric
current through a circuit, but they limit the flow of
electrons or electric current.
components cannot amplify or increase the power of an
components temporarily store the electrical energy in the
form of static electric field or magnetic field.
components do not depend on the external source of energy or
voltage to perform a specific operation.
of passive components
different types of passive components include resistors,
capacitors, and inductors.
are the commonly used components in the electronic circuits. A
resistor is an electronic component that limits the electric
current or flow of electrons to certain level. It consists of
much electric current does a resistor reduce or limits is
depends on the resistance value of a resistor. The resistors
with more resistance value will reduce large amount of
electric current whereas the resistors with less resistance
value will reduce less amount of electric current.
electric current reduced or restricted by the resistor is
measured in ohms and it is represented by a symbol Ω.
The size of resistors is very small.
are the most widely used electronic components after the
resistors. Capacitors temporarily store the electrical energy
in the form of static electric
Capacitors consist of two
parallel electrical conductors separated by a non-conductive
or insulating material called dielectric. Dielectric materials
do not allow the electricity to flow through them.
inductor is a passive two terminal electronic component that
temporarily stores the electrical energy in the form of a
magnetic field. It consists of coil of copper wires or
electrical conductive wires. When the electric current is
passed through the coil, a magnetic field is produced and
stored in the coil of copper wires.
electronic component, which consumes energy in the form of
voltage or current and produces or supplies energy in the form
of electric current or voltage is called active component.
active component not only controls the flow of electrons or
electric current, but also amplifies or increases the power
of electronic signal.
components depend on the external source of energy or
voltage to perform a specific operation.
the active components consume enough voltage, they start
Different types of active
different types of active components include diodes,
transistors, and integrated circuits (IC).
diode is a semiconductor
component that allows most of the electric current or
flows of electrons in one direction (forward direction) while
blocks most of the electric current in opposite direction
(reverse direction). It consists of two terminals or
electrodes: cathode and anode. The p-type material of a diode
acts as anode and the n-type material acts as cathode.
When the voltage is applied to the diode in such a way that
positive terminal is connected to the anode and negative
terminal is connected to the cathode, the diode allows the
the voltage is applied to the diode in such a way that
positive terminal is connected to the cathode and the negative
terminal is connected to the anode, the diode blocks the
A transistor is a semiconductor component that amplifies or
increases the electronic signals. Three scientists named
Walter Brattain, William Shockley, and J. Bardeen invented the
transistor in 1947 at the Bell Laboratories. Transistors are
made from semiconductor materials such as silicon and
integrated circuit is a small semiconductor chip on which
millions of electronic components such as capacitors,
resistors, and transistors are fabricated. The cost of
Integrated circuit is low compared to the discrete components
because in integrated circuit all the components are
fabricated on a single chip.
can function as a microprocessor, amplifier, and counter. The
invention of ICs had changed the world of electronics.亚博网址多少